Health check Logo

Everything You Need To Know About Typhoid Fever

18 Apr 2023 by Admin
Blog details

Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, is a bacterial infection caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. It is a severe and life-threatening disease that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene practices.

In this blog, we will cover everything you need to know about typhoid fever, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Causes of Typhoid Fever:

Typhoid fever is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi, which is transmitted through contaminated food and water. The bacteria enter the body through the mouth, and then travel to the small intestine, where they multiply and infect the bloodstream.

The bacteria are shed in the feces and urine of infected individuals, which can contaminate water sources and food supplies. Poor sanitation and hygiene practices, such as not washing hands after using the toilet, can contribute to the spread of the disease.

Symptoms of Typhoid Fever:

The symptoms of typhoid fever can vary in severity and duration, but generally develop within 1-3 weeks after exposure to the bacteria. The most common symptoms include:

  1. High Fever: The hallmark symptom of typhoid fever is a sustained high fever, often reaching 103-104°F (39-40°C).

  2. Gastrointestinal symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea are common symptoms of typhoid fever. The diarrhea is often bloody and can last for several weeks.

  3. Abdominal Pain: Patients with typhoid fever may experience abdominal pain, particularly in the right lower quadrant.

  4. Headache: A headache is a common symptom of typhoid fever, and can be severe.

  5. Rash: A rash may develop on the trunk of the body in some patients with typhoid fever.

  6. Weakness and fatigue: Patients with typhoid fever may experience weakness and fatigue, which can persist for several weeks after recovery.

Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever:

Typhoid fever can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms can mimic those of other illnesses, such as malaria or viral hepatitis. A blood test is typically used to confirm the presence of the Salmonella typhi bacteria.

In some cases, a stool sample may be collected to identify the bacteria, particularly in patients with diarrhea. However, stool samples may not always be reliable because the bacteria may not be present in the stool during the early stages of the disease.

Treatment of Typhoid Fever:

Typhoid fever is a serious illness that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics. Antibiotics can help to reduce the severity of the symptoms and prevent complications.

Commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of typhoid fever include ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, and ceftriaxone. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity of the disease and the patient's age and health status.

Patients with severe cases of typhoid fever may require hospitalization to receive intravenous fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a perforated intestine or drain an abscess.

Prevention of Typhoid Fever:

The best way to prevent typhoid fever is to practice good hygiene and sanitation practices. This includes washing hands thoroughly with soap and water after using the toilet, before preparing or eating food, and after handling contaminated materials.

Avoiding contaminated food and water is also important in preventing typhoid fever. Travelers to developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene practices should take precautions, such as drinking bottled water and avoiding raw or undercooked foods.

Vaccines are available for the prevention of typhoid fever. The two types of vaccines available are the inactivated injectable vaccine and the live attenuated oral vaccine. The vaccine is recommended for